Can you advise me on what resources are available to help me improve my executive functioning?

Traditional strategies for improving executive functioning include the use of graphic organizers, daily and weekly planners, color-coding and other organizational tools, and allowing extra time to complete tasks. Also, sports and exercise have recently been shown to improve executive function skills such as focus, working memory, and cognitive flexibility.

There are also many assistive technology applications available to assist with executive functioning. Smart phones have calendars with a system of reminders built-in, as well as digital note pads to help with memory and organization. Additionally, there are many apps available if you search online for “executive functioning apps.” Two good places to begin searching are the “Tools for Life App Finder” and the app finder at Learning Works for Kids.

What is the difference between auditory processing disorder and ADHD?

An auditory processing disorder is a condition that adversely affects how sound that travels unimpeded through the ear is processed and interpreted by the brain. For more information, see learning-disabilities/auditory- processing-disorder/

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurobiological disorder that is influenced by environmental factors. Typically, people with AD/HD have developmentally inappropriate behavior, including poor attention skills, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. For diagnosis, the behaviors must be out of the normal range for the person’s age and development. According to the DSM-5, characteristics include:

  • Starts in early childhood, usually before age 12.
  • Behaviors are chronic.
  • Behaviors last at least 6 months.

For more information about AD/HD, go to learning-disabilities/adhd/.

I have learning disability. Is there a higher chance for my kids to have them also? And if so what age should I get them tested?

Yes, there is a higher chance that your children may have learning disabilities. According to The Neurobiology of Reading and Dyslexia, by Sally E. Shaywitz, M.D., and Bennet A. Shaywitz, M.D.), 27%-49% of children with dyslexia have one or more parents who also have dyslexia.

LDA supports the idea that, “It is never too early to seek help for your child, but waiting too long could be very harmful.” For further information about characteristics to watch for at different ages, click here.

I am confused about the difference between a learning disability and a language disorder?

A learning disability is a neurological disorder that affects information processing. For more information, go to

A language disorder is a type of auditory processing disorder that affects how language is processed. It can affect both what you say and/or how you understand what other people say. For more information, go to learning-disabilities/language-processing-disorder/.

Why do we still use the term learning disability?

The term “learning disability” was first used by Dr. Sam Kirk in a paper he submitted to a conference in 1963. That term was widely accepted and used in civil rights legislation and the Diagnostic Statistical Manual (DSM) until 2013, when the DSM-5 replaced the term “learning disability” with “learning disorder.” However, most people still use the term “learning disability,” primarily because civil rights legislation that protects people with disabilities uses the term “learning disability.”

Can a learning disability be diagnosed with help of MRI, CT scan and EEG by a neurologist?

No. However, some tests such as an MRI or CT scan may be helpful in diagnosing a traumatic brain injury or other neurological damage that may be at least part of the cause for a learning disability. Some researchers are exploring the possibility of using those types of tests as part of a learning disability diagnosis, but at this time, a learning disability can only be diagnosed with psychological testing, administered by a licensed psychologist or psychiatrist.

I am currently attending a four-year college I have always felt as though I have trouble focusing and paying attention. What type of doctor will diagnosis my condition and what do I ask when I call them?

The first step would be to contact your family doctor and report your problems with focusing and paying attention. It may be that you have some level of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), which can range from mild to severe. Most general practitioners can diagnose ADHD, and it’s usually the most inexpensive way to go.

There is an adult screening tool for ADHD developed by the World Health Organization here. You may want to print the document, fill it out, and see if it indicates a likelihood that you may have ADHD. If so, it would be helpful if you could take it with you when you visit your doctor.

A good resource for learning more about ADHD is

Does a learning disability diagnostic report need to be specific about the types of learning disabilities one has?

Yes. Learning disability evaluations should include a list of all diagnosed disabilities. If the evaluations were completed within a school district, the specific educational diagnoses will be listed. If completed by someone outside of the school district, the report will include the corresponding Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) Axis Codes. However, some evaluations conclude that the person has LD-NOS (Learning Disorder – Not Otherwise Specified). The LD-NOS category is a broad, catch-all category for people with notable learning difficulties that affect education and/or work, but do not fit the criteria for some other category.