You ask an excellent question about the need for ‘recent’ disability documentation. Each college or university develops their own policy for reviewing student documentation, determining barriers to education, and providing needed accommodations. When looking at schools for your daughter, read through the documentation policy for each disability office. Ask questions about what type of evaluation material is needed and how current it must be to access accommodations at their institution. Schools can vary greatly in what they require to determine accommodations for students with disabilities. The Association of Higher Education and Disability (AHEAD) is another excellent resource for information about disability services in the post-secondary setting. AHEAD provides the following explanation on their website about current, relevant and recent documentation:
“Disability documentation should be current and relevant but not necessarily “recent”. Disabilities are typically stable lifelong conditions. Therefore, historic information, supplemented by interview of self-report, is often sufficient to describe how the condition impacts the student at the current time and in the current circumstances. Institutions should not establish blanket statements that limit the age of acceptable external documentation”. (www.ahead.org)
Unfortunately, every state seems to handle disability accommodations differently. Some have policies mandating accommodations; others do not. The only thing you can do is contact your DMV (or whoever does the testing in your state) and ask them what accommodations you would be eligible for based on your disability diagnosis and documentation. Typical testing accommodations for paper-based or computer-based tests include:
Access to auditory format, either text-to- speech software or a reader;
Extra time to complete the test;
Private, distraction-free room for testing;
A scribe (someone to write or keyboard for you);
Calculator for math problems; and
Breaks, if needed.
You may also request other accommodations if needed and if your disability documentation supports the need.
An auditory processing disorder is a condition that adversely affects how sound that travels unimpeded through the ear is processed and interpreted by the brain. For more information, see https://ldaamerica.org/types-of- learning-disabilities/auditory- processing-disorder/
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurobiological disorder that is influenced by environmental factors. Typically, people with AD/HD have developmentally inappropriate behavior, including poor attention skills, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. For diagnosis, the behaviors must be out of the normal range for the person’s age and development. According to the DSM-5, characteristics include:
The most important component of short-term memory is attention. You must choose to give something your undivided attention and focus if you want to remember it.
There are many strategies and assistive technology tools for helping you remember things. Here are some ideas for strategies you can:
Know your learning style(s), and use your area(s) of strength when you need to remember something. For example, visual learners may want to draw pictures, maps, or charts; or write the information down. Auditory learners may need to repeat the information out loud, or use a recording device to hear the information later.
Repetition. Once you’ve identified your preferred learning style(s), the more you repeat the information, the more you’ll remember it.
Mnemonic devices. For example, to remember the great lakes, many people think of “HOMES,” to remind them of the beginning letters of each lake (Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie, Superior).
Chunking, or breaking the information into smaller parts to remember the parts instead of the whole. Put the parts together later to make the whole.
Rhyming/music/rhythm. Try remembering something by putting it in a familiar song, like the tune of the ABC song. Sounds silly, but it works for lots of people. Actually, the crazier it is, the better it works.
There should be an adult education or literacy program somewhere in your area that can help with improving reading skills.
You can search online to find directory information for local programs by looking for “adult education and literacy programs” plus the name of the town and state where you live. Also, there is information about various reading programs at https://ldaamerica.org/adult-literacy- reading-programs/.
In the meantime, it may help your daily functioning to use a text-to-speech program and/or app so you can hear printed text out loud.
Yes, there is a higher chance that your children may have learning disabilities. According to The Neurobiology of Reading and Dyslexia, by Sally E. Shaywitz, M.D., and Bennet A. Shaywitz, M.D.), 27%-49% of children with dyslexia have one or more parents who also have dyslexia.
LDA supports the idea that, “It is never too early to seek help for your child, but waiting too long could be very harmful.” For further information about characteristics to watch for at different ages, click here.
Strategies to remember information vary depending on how the information is presented – orally or written – but there are a lot of different strategies to choose from.
For remembering what you hear, it may help to take notes or make a digital recording. Most smart phones have a built-in recorder that allows you to easily record what someone is saying. For note-taking assistive technology ideas, the following resources may help:
For remembering what you read, graphic organizers may again be your most useful tool available. Some people remember what they read better if they read it out loud, or re-say what they read in their own words, or discuss what they’re reading with someone else.
“Pragmatic Language Impairment” is now called “Social Communication Disorder,” and it refers to using spoken language in socially inappropriate ways. For information and resources, head over to Understood.org‘s article on this subject.
Many students working towards a high school equivalency diploma, including students in GED® adult education programs, may have learning disabilities, although many of those students have never been diagnosed. According to The Neurobiology of Reading and Dyslexia, by Sally E. Shaywitz, M.D., and Bennet A. Shaywitz, M.D., approximately 85% of people with learning disabilities have some type of reading disability. That percentage applies to all people with learning disabilities, whether or not they are enrolled in a GED®, HiSET®, or TASC™ adult education program.
So while students with learning disabilities include students with various types of learning disabilities, the most common learning disability is a reading disability.